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1. Concern about global warming has caused scientist to focus attention on greenhouse gases. The term greenhouse gas refers to which one of the following?

a. any gas that has a greenish color in the Earth’s atmosphere
b. any gas that is valuable and worth a large sum of money
c. any gas that traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere
d. any gas that causes the paint on houses to turn a greenish color

2. The lithosphere of the Earth refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

3. Much of the electricity in the United States comes from power plants that burn coal. Which one of the following describes pollution that results from the use of coal-fired power plants?

a. Coal ash waste (created from burning coal) stored in lagoons with the potential to leak into rivers and streams
b. Gaseous air pollutants emitted from burning coal to provide electricity
c. Particulate matter (PM), or fine particles in the air, emitted from burning coal to provide electricity
d. all of the above

4. Concern about global warming has driven recent efforts to reduce the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline, natural gas) for producing energy. The primary reason that burning fossil fuels contributes to global warming is because the combustion process emits large quantities of a greenhouse gas to the Earth’s atmosphere. The gas is which one of the following?

a. nitrogen
b. oxygen
c. water vapor
d. carbon dioxide

5. Which one of the following is considered a renewable and sustainable source of energy?

a. natural gas
b. oil
c. solar
d. all of the above

6. Biological Diversity or Biodiversity refers to the variety of life and living organisms on Earth. Biodiversity is important because of which one of the following?

a. biodiversity is essential to agriculture and food crops
b. biodiversity is essential to marine and freshwater food resources
c. biodiversity helps sustain ecosystems and provides protection against sudden changes or disasters
d. all of the above

7. A scientist wants to vary the type of soil used to grow tomato plants and observe (and record) the resulting growth of each plant. She uses identical seeds, amounts of water, and amounts of sunlight for each plant. Therefore, the only thing that she varies in the experiment is the type of soil used for each plant. For this experiment, the independent variable is which one of the following?

a. amount of sunlight
b. type of soil
c. amount of water
d. plant growth

8. For the experiment described above, the dependent variable is which one of the following?

a. amount of sunlight
b. type of soil
c. amount of water
d. plant growth

9. Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive animal grazing for long periods of time. Overgrazing is a concern due to which of the following?

a. it can reduce the productivity of the land
b. it can cause land and soil erosion
c. it can reduce the biodiversity of the land
d. all of the above

10. The "bad" ozone (or smog) that causes health problems, especially for young children and the elderly, is located near ground level where we breathe. The air (or atmosphere) near ground level is called which one of the following?

a. hydrosphere
b. stratosphere
c. lithosphere
d. troposphere

11. The oceans are teaming with life, including tiny zooplankton and phytoplankton. Which one of the following best describes zooplankton?

a. They are tiny organisms that use sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.
b. They are tiny organisms that do not carry out photosynthesis.
c. They are large organisms that feed on ocean fish
d. none of the above

12. The "good" ozone that protects us from much of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation is located many miles above the surface of the Earth. The air (or atmosphere) where "good" ozone is located is called which one of the following?

a. troposphere
b. hydrosphere
c. lithosphere
d. stratosphere

13. Which one of the following is the main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis?

a. high tide
b. low tide
c. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
d. day and night

14. There are yards signs in Lee County that express opposition to fracking or hydraulic fracturing due to concerns about possible contamination of drinking water and well water systems. Which one of the following best describes fracking?

a. process of applying dangerous pesticides to farm land
b. process of drilling to install new drinking water wells
c. process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at high pressure to fracture shale rocks and recover natural gas
d. process of cutting and removing trees and forests

15. Which one of the following is smallest in size?

a. our Sun
b. Jupiter
c. Earth
d. our Moon

16. The ocean tides are primarily caused by which one of the following?

a. the gravitational pull of the Moon on the Earth’s oceans
b. the gravitation pull of Mars on the Earth’s oceans
c. the gravitation pull of Jupiter on the Earth’s oceans
d. none of the above

17. Examples of surface water include lakes, rivers, ponds, and creeks. Surface water can become contaminated by which of the following?

a. fertilizers and pesticides from lawns and gardens
b. rainwater runoff from streets, parking lots, and businesses
c. discharges from factories
d. all of the above

18. The main result of the Earth's rotation about its axis is which one of the following?

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. global warming
c. solar flares
d. day and night

19. Latitude is which one of the following?

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

20. Longitude is which one of the following?

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

21. Which one of the following best describes sedimentary rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth

22. Which one of the following best describes metamorphic rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth

23. Which one of the following best describes igneous rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth

24. Hydrosphere refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

25. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. seasons
b. precession
c. eclipse
d. day and night