Name: ______________________

Earth & Environmental Science (March 24, 2015)


1. Which one of the following best describes metamorphic rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth


2. Which one of the following is largest in size?

a. our Sun
b. Jupiter
c. our Galaxy
d. our Solar System


3. In science, a ___________ is a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions.

a. bias
b. theory
c. hypothesis
d. predisposition


4. What type of plate boundary occurs when two plates move together, causing one plate to descend into the mantle beneath the other plate?

a. divergent boundary
b. convergent boundary
c. transform fault boundary
d. water boundary


5. The thin, rigid layer that forms the outermost part of the lithosphere of Earth is called which one of the following?

a. mantle
b. inner core
c. outer core
d. crust


6. The air in our classroom is primarily ____________ .

a. water and dust
b. oxygen and carbon compounds
c. carbon compounds and nitrogen
d. oxygen and nitrogen


7. A student visits a volcano that has recently erupted. The student is most likely to find which one of the following?

a. metamorphic rock
b. sedimentary rock
c. igneous rock
d. sediment


8. Which one of the following provides the best evidence for the theory that faults and volcanoes are the result of tectonic plate interactions?

a. faults and volcanoes are often found at tectonic plate boundaries
b. faults and volcanoes existed long before tectonic plates
c. tectonic plates that have many faults do not usually have volcanoes
d. faults and volcanoes are rarely found at tectonic plate boundaries


9. The Solar System's inner planets (also called rocky planets or terrestrial planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth


10. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. eclipse
d. precession


11. Air pollution results from ____________ .

a. coal-fired power plants
b. automobile and truck exhaust
c. open burning of leaves and garbage
d. all of the above


12. The main result of the Earth's rotation about its axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. solar flares
d. nuclear fission


13. Why is a heavy rain shower in the desert capable of causing a large amount of erosion?

a. there is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place
b. desert ground is not able to absorb water
c. desert temperatures are very high
d. streams overflow easily


14. A seismograph is an instrument that records which one of the following?

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. earthquake waves
d. river velocity


15. The Solar System's outer planets (also called gaseous planets or Jovian planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth


16. Which one of the following is the main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis?

a. high tide
b. low tide
c. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
d. day and night


17. A solar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. a full moon occurs
b. a solar flare occurs
c. the Earth moves in a line between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon
d. the Moon moves in a line between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on the Earth


18. The primary factors that determine if a volcano erupts violently or quietly include ____________ .

a. groundwater and precipitation
b. magma composition, magma temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
c. sedimentary rock composition, sedimentary rock temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the sedimentary rock
d. groundwater, precipitation, and surface water


19. Imagine that a scientist ties someone up to a chair so they can't move and then applies an electric shock to them at 5 volts, 10 volts, 20 volts, etc., while marking on a graph how loud they scream at each voltage. (Never do this experiment!) The scientist controls and varies the applied voltage. Therefore, the applied voltage is which one of the following?

a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. fixed variable
d. all of the above


20. The lithosphere of the Earth refers to which one of the following?

a. the air above the surface of the Earth
b. the water bodies (oceans, lakes, and rivers) of the Earth
c. the various solid objects in orbit around the Earth
d. the outer, solid part of the surface of the Earth


21. The most significant force of erosion on our Earth is which one of the following?

a. running water
b. wind
c. ocean waves
d. glaciers


22. Two tectonic plates scrape sideways past each other at which one of the following?

a. convergent boundaries
b. divergent boundaries
c. transform boundaries
d. atmospheric boundaries


23. Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause which one of the following?

a. hurricane
b. landslide
c. sinkhole
d. fault


24. Heliocentric describes which one of the following?

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. the ancient view that the Earth is at the center of the solar system
d. the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system


25. Magma is molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface. __________ rock forms when magma cools and hardens beneath the surface or as the result of a volcanic eruption.

a. igneous
b. metamorphic
c. sedimentary
d. precession


26. Latitude is the _____________.

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon


27. Most people killed or injured by an earthquake are hit by debris from buildings. Additional damage can be caused by tremors that can occur hours, days, or months after an earthquake. These tremors are called ____________ .

a. epicenters
b. aftershocks
c. avalanches
d. infrastructures


28. The Cape Fear River Basin, which includes all of Lee County, is the largest river basin in the state. The basin starts in the north central piedmont region, near Greensboro and High Point, and empties its water on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean near _____________ .

a. Raleigh
b. Nags Head
c. Virginia Beach
d. Wilmington


29. A meteoroid traveling through space that crashes into the Earth's surface is called a _____________ once it reaches the .

a. comet
b. meteorite
c. eclipse
d. precession


30. Examples of alternate energy sources discussed in our textbook include _____________.

a. coal energy and fuel oil energy
b. coal energy, fuel oil energy, and natural gas energy
c. coal energy and wind energy
d. solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy


31. Earth can be thought of as consisting of four major spheres named _______.

a. atmosphere, troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere
b. igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, silt, and sand
c. hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere
d. igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, silt


32. Longitude is the _____________.

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon


33. An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements in the crust of the Earth. The biggest quakes are set off by the movement of _____________ .

a. large ocean waves
b. high tides
c. large rivers
d. tectonic plates