Lithosphere, Earth, Astronomy

1. You notice that wet bread quickly becomes moldy. This is ________________.

a. an observation
b. a hypothesis
c. an experiment
d. a theory

2. Based on your observations, you suggest that the presence of water could accelerate the growth of bread mold. This is ________________.

a. an observation
b. a hypothesis
c. an experiment
d. a theory

3. During a controlled experiment, a scientist isolates and tests ________________.

a. a large amount of information
b. a conclusion
c. a single variable
d. a conclusion

4. A scientist conducts a controlled experiment with tomato plants. She consistently varies the amount of water given to each plant and records how fully each plant grows over time. Which of the following is correct?

a. The independent variable is the amount of water provided to each plant.
b. The independent variable is how fully each plant grows.
c. The independent variable is the amount of sunlight each plant receives.
d. The independent variable is the amount of fertilizer each plant receives.

5. For question 4 above, which of the following is correct?

a. The dependent variable is the amount of water provided to each plant.
b. The dependent variable is how fully each plant grows.
c. The dependent variable is the amount of sunlight each plant receives.
d. The dependent variable is the amount of fertilizer each plant receives.

6. The air in our classroom is primarily ____________ .

a. oxygen and nitrogen
b. oxygen and carbon compounds
c. carbon compounds and nitrogen
d. water and dust

7. In the atmosphere, carbon is found mainly as _____________.

a. water
b. dust
c. carbon dioxide
d. nitrogen

8. Interactions among Earth's water, air, and land can cause rocks to change from one type to another. The continuous processes that cause rocks to change make up the ____________.

a. water cycle
b. carbon cycle
c. nitrogen cycle
d. rock cycle

9. When __________ cools and hardens beneath the surface or as a result of a volcanic eruption, igneous rock forms.

a. water & ice
b. salt
c. sugar
d. magma

10. Metamorphic rocks form when existing rocks are changed by _____________.

a. water, wind, ice, or gravity
b. heat & pressure
c. oxygen & nitrogen in the atmosphere
d. evaporation

11. Erosions involves weathering and the removal of rock. When an agent of erosion (such as water, wind, ice, or gravity) loses energy it drops the sediments. This process is called ___________.

a. deposition
b. evaporation
c. precipitation
d. combustion

12. Sedimentary rocks form when existing rocks are changed by _____________.

a. water, wind, ice, or gravity
b. heat & pressure
c. oxygen & nitrogen in the atmosphere
d. combustion

13. Coal forms when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of years. Fossil fuels include _____________.

a. coal, water and ice
b. coal, oil, and natural gas
c. coal, wind, and gravity
d. coal and wind

14. Examples of alternate energy sources discussed in our textbook include _____________.

a. coal energy and fuel oil energy
b. coal energy, fuel oil energy, and natural gas energy
c. coal energy and wind energy
d. solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy

15. Earth can be thought of as consisting of four major spheres named _______.

a. atmosphere, troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere
b. hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere
c. igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, silt
d. igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic, silt, and sand

16. Latitude is the _____________.

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

17. Longitude is the _____________.

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

18. In studying the lithosphere, chemical weathering refers to _____________.

a. the combustion of hydrocarbons and oxygen
b. the transformation of rock into water
c. the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds.
d. the amount of solar energy hitting the earth

19. Gamma rays, X-rays, visible light, infrared, and radio waves are examples of _____________.

a. nuclear energy
b. gravitational forces
c. ultraviolet light
d. electromagnetic radiation

20. The unending circulation of Earth's water supply is called the water cycle. Balance in the water cycle means the average annual precipitation over Earth equals the amount of water that ___________ .

a. evaporates
b. disintegrates
c. precipitates
d. freezes

21. The ability of a stream to erode and transport materials depends largely on its __________.

a. depth
b. turbidity
c. velocity
d. temperature

22. The Solar System's inner planets (also called rocky planets or terrestrial planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

23. Heliocentric describes _____________ .

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system
d. the ancient view that the Earth is at the center of the solar system

24. A galaxy is a _____________ .

a. group of planets held together by gravity
b. group of stars, dust, and gases held together by gravity
c. group of moons held together by gravity
d. group of asteroids and dust held together by gravity

25. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. precession
d. nuclear fussion

26. Earthquakes are usually associated with large fractures in the Earth's crust and mantle called _____________ .

a. faults
b. eclipses
c. precession
d. nuclear fusion

27. The main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. high tide
d. low tide

28. The primary factors that determine whether a volcano erupts violently or quietly include ____________ .

a. magma composition, magma temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
b. sedimentary rock composition, sedimentary rock temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the sedimentary rock
c. groundwater, precipitation, and surface water
d. groundwater and precipitation

29. A meteoroid that actually reaches the Earth's surface is called a _____________ .

a. comet
b. meteorite
c. eclipse
d. precession

30. A lunar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. a full moon occurs
b. a solar flare occurs
c. the Earth moves in a line between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the moon
d. the Moon moves in a line between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on Earth


31. A solar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. a full moon occurs
b. a solar flare occurs
c. the earth moves in a line between the sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the moon
d. the moon moves in a line between the Earth and the sun, casting a shadow on Earth

32. The Solar System's outer planets (also called gaseous planets or Jovian planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

33. A seismograph is an instrument that records _____________ .

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. river velocity
d. earthquake waves

34. Which one of the following has the smallest particle size?

a. sand
b. clay
c. silt

35. Which one of the following is NOT correct?

a. Our galaxy is much larger than our solar system.
b. Our solar system includes the asteroid belt.
c. Jupiter is much large than Earth.
d. Our galaxy is larger than the Universe.

36. Water moves moves very slowly through _____________ .

a. sand
b. clay
c. silt
d. loam

37. An earthquake is _______________.

a. molten rock on the moon
b. the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
c. the progression of changes in the Moon's appearance during the day
d. the progression of changes in the Moon's appearance during the month

38. Loam is _______________.

a. molten rock
b. a mixture of clay, silt, and sand
c. almost entirely clay
d. almost entirely sand

39. Phases of the moon refers to _______________.

a. molten rock on the moon
b. a mixture of clay, silt, and sand on the moon
c. the progression of changes in the moon's appearance during the day
d. the progression of changes in the moon's appearance during the month

40. Barycenter refers to ___________.

a. nuclear fusion
b. nuclear fission
c. the common center of mass around which two or more bodies revolve
d. the Earth's distance from the sun