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1. Which one of the following describes pollution that results from the use of coal-fired power plants to provide electricity to homes and business?

a. Gaseous air pollutants emitted from burning coal to provide electricity
b. Particulate matter (PM), or fine particles in the air, emitted from burning coal to provide electricity
c. Coal ash waste (created from burning coal) stored in lagoons with the potential to leak into rivers and streams
d. all of the above

2. Which one of the following is considered a renewable and sustainable source of energy?

a. Geothermal Energy
b. Wind Energy
c. Solar Energy
d. all of the above

3. Which one of the following is largest in size?

a. Our Sun
b. Jupiter
c. Saturn
d. Our Galaxy (Milky Way)

4. The "bad" ozone (or smog) that causes health problems, especially for young children and the elderly, is located near ground level where we breathe. The air (or atmosphere) near ground level is called which one of the following?

a. troposphere
b. stratosphere
c. lithosphere
d. hydrosphere

5. The oceans are teaming with life, including tiny zooplankton and phytoplankton. Which one of the following best describes phytoplankton?

a. They are tiny organisms that use sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.
b. They are tiny organisms that do not carry out photosynthesis.
c. They are tiny organisms that are classified as animals.

6. The "good" ozone that protects us from much of the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation is located many miles above the surface of the Earth. The air (or atmosphere) where "good" ozone is located is called which one of the following?

a. troposphere
b. stratosphere
c. lithosphere
d. hydrosphere

7. Which one of the following is the main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis?

a. high tide
b. low tide
c. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
d. day and night

8. Which one of the following is smallest in size?

a. our Sun
b. Jupiter
c. our Galaxy
d. our Solar System

9. Imagine that a scientist wants to vary the amount of sunlight given to tomato plants and observe (and record) the resulting growth of each plant. She uses identical seeds and soil for each plant. Also, she gives each plant the same amount of water. Therefore, the only thing that she varies is the amount of sunlight given to each plant. For this experiment, the independent variable is which one of the following?

a. type of soil
b. amount of water
c. amount of sunlight
d. amount of growth

10. The careful use of resources is called which one of the following?

a. corona
b. conservation
c. condensation
d. pollution

11. A solar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. the Earth moves in a line between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon
b. the Moon moves in a line between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on the Earth
c. the Earth moves in a line between the Sun and Mars, casting a shadow on Mars

12. Which one of the following best describes wind and the flow of air?

a. Air flow is not affected by air pressure.
b. Air flows from areas of low pressure to areas of high pressure.
c. Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

13. The air in our classroom is primarily ____________ .

a. oxygen and nitrogen
b. oxygen and carbon compounds
c. carbon compounds and nitrogen
d. none of the above

14. Which one of the following provides the best evidence for the theory that faults and volcanoes are the result of tectonic plate interactions?

a. faults and volcanoes are rarely found at tectonic plate boundaries
b. faults and volcanoes are often found at tectonic plate boundaries
c. faults and volcanoes existed long before tectonic plates
d. tectonic plates that have many faults do not usually have volcanoes

15. The main result of the Earth's rotation about its axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. global warming
c. solar flares
d. day and night

23. The lithosphere of the Earth refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

24. The Solar System's outer planets (also called gaseous planets or Jovian planets) are which one of the following?

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

25. Latitude is which one of the following?

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

26. Heliocentric describes which one of the following?

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. the ancient view that the Earth is at the center of the solar system
d. the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system

27. Imagine that a scientist wants to vary the amount of water given to tomato plants and observe (and record) the resulting growth of each plant. She uses identical seeds, soil, and sunlight for each plant. Therefore, the only thing that she varies is the amount of water given to each plant. For this experiment, the amount of water is which one of the following?

a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. fixed variable
d. all of the above

28. Important sources of drinking water and irrigation water are the large areas of rock (or soil) through which groundwater moves easily. These are called which one of the following?

a. asteroids
b. benthos
c. aquifers
d. deltas

29. Atmosphere refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

30. Hydrosphere refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

31. Which one of the following best describes metamorphic rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth

32. What type of plate boundary occurs when two plates move apart and away from each other (for example, the mid-Atlantic ridge in the Atlantic Ocean).

a. divergent boundary
b. convergent boundary
c. transform fault boundary
d. water boundary

33. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. precession
b. seasons
c. eclipse
d. day and night