Name: ______________________

Earth & Environmental Science (May 14, 2015)

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1. Does elevation affect the climate?

a. Yes, higher elevations have a cooler climate.
b. Yes, higher elevations have a warmer climate.
c. No, elevation does not affect the climate.

(The correct answer is "Yes, higher elevations have a cooler climate.")

2. A device used for measuring air pressure is called which one of the following?

a. seismometer
b. barometer
c. Coriolis Effect
d. thermometer

(The correct answer is "barometer.")

3. Which one of the following best describes wind and the flow of air?

a. Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
b. Air flows from areas of low pressure to areas of high pressure.
c. Air flow is not affected by air pressure.

(The correct answer is "Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.")

4. The thin, rocky outer layer of Earth is called which one of the following?

a. core
b. cumulus
c. corona
d. crust

(The correct answer is "crust.")

5. Which one of the following is largest in size?

a. our Sun
b. Jupiter
c. our Galaxy
d. our Solar System

(The correct answer is "our Galaxy.")

6. The air in our classroom is primarily ____________ .

a. water and dust
b. oxygen and carbon compounds
c. carbon compounds and nitrogen
d. oxygen and nitrogen

(The correct answer is "oxygen and nitrogen.")

7. Which one of the following provides the best evidence for the theory that faults and volcanoes are the result of tectonic plate interactions?

a. faults and volcanoes are often found at tectonic plate boundaries
b. faults and volcanoes existed long before tectonic plates
c. tectonic plates that have many faults do not usually have volcanoes
d. faults and volcanoes are rarely found at tectonic plate boundaries

(The correct answer is "faults and volcanoes are often found at tectonic plate boundaries.")

8. A seismometer is an instrument that records which one of the following?

a. air pressure
b. temperature changes
c. earthquake waves
d. river velocity

(The correct answer is "seismometer.")

9. The Solar System's inner planets (also called rocky planets or terrestrial planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

(The correct answer is "Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.")

10. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. eclipse
d. precession

(The correct answer is "precession.")

11. Air pollution results from ____________ .

a. coal-fired power plants
b. automobile and truck exhaust
c. open burning of leaves and garbage
d. all of the above

(The correct answer is "all of the above.")

12. The main result of the Earth's rotation about its axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. solar flares
d. nuclear fission

(The correct answer is "day and night.")

13. Most people killed or injured by an earthquake are hit by debris from buildings. Additional damage can be caused by tremors that can occur hours, days, or months after an earthquake. These tremors are called ____________ .

a. epicenters
b. aftershocks
c. avalanches
d. infrastructures

(The correct answer is "aftershocks.")

14. Why is a heavy rain shower in the desert capable of causing a large amount of erosion?

a. there is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place
b. desert ground is not able to absorb water
c. desert temperatures are very high
d. streams overflow easily

(The correct answer is "there is a lack of vegetation to hold the soil in place.")

15. Which one of the following is the main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis?

a. high tide
b. low tide
c. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
d. day and night

(The correct answer is "the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall.")

16. The Cape Fear River Basin, which includes all of Lee County, is the largest river basin in the state. The basin starts in the north central piedmont region, near Greensboro and High Point, and empties its water on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean near _____________ .

a. Raleigh
b. Nags Head
c. Virginia Beach
d. Wilmington

(The correct answer is "Wilmington.")

17. A solar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. a full moon occurs
b. a solar flare occurs
c. the Earth moves in a line between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon
d. the Moon moves in a line between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on the Earth

(The correct answer is "the Moon moves in a line between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on the Earth.")

18. The forms of marine life near the ocean bottom are called which one of the following?

a. benthos
b. delta
c. aquifer
d. barycenter

(The correct answer is "benthos.")

19. The careful use of resources is called which one of the following?

a. benthos
b. delta
c. conservation
d. pollution

(The correct answer is "conservation.")

20. The factor that generally has the most influence on a region's climate is which one of the following?

a. longitude
b. abundant plant species
c. latitude (distance from the equator)
d. closeness to a river

(The correct answer is "latitude - distance from the equator.")

21. Unfortunately, Lee county is likely to become a location for burying large amounts of coal ash waste. Large amounts of coal ash result from which one of the following?

a. automobile exhaust
b. natural gas-fired power plants
c. nuclear power plants
d. coal-fired power plants

(The correct answer is "coal-fired power plants.")

22. Examples of renewable and sustainable sources of energy discussed in our textbook include _____________.

a. coal energy
b. coal and petroleum energy
c. coal, petroleum, and natural gas energy
d. solar, wind, and geothermal energy

(The correct answer is "solar, wind, and geothermal energy.")

23. The lithosphere of the Earth refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

(The correct answer is "land.")

24. The Solar System's outer planets (also called gaseous planets or Jovian planets) are which one of the following?

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

(The correct answer is "Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.")

25. Magma is molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface. The rock that forms when magma cools and hardens beneath the surface, or as the result of a volcanic eruption, is called which one of the following?

a. igneous
b. metamorphic
c. sedimentary
d. precession

(The correct answer is "igneous.")

26. Latitude is which one of the following?

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

(The correct answer is "distance north or south of the equator.")

27. In science, a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions, is called which one of the following?

a. bias
b. theory
c. hypothesis
d. lucky guess

(The correct answer is "theory.")

28. Heliocentric describes which one of the following?

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. the ancient view that the Earth is at the center of the solar system
d. the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system

(The correct answer is "the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system.")

29. Violent shaking from an earthquake can cause soil and rock on slopes to fail and cause which one of the following?

a. hurricane
b. landslide
c. thunderstorm
d. tornado

(The correct answer is "landslide.")

30. The most significant force of erosion on our Earth is which one of the following?

a. running water
b. blowing wind
c. howling wolves
d. cursing teachers

(The correct answer is "running water.")

31. Two tectonic plates colliding together (for example, the recent earthquake in Nepal where the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate) refers to which one of the following?

a. convergent boundaries
b. divergent boundaries
c. transform boundaries
d. atmospheric boundaries

(The correct answer is "convergent boundaries.")

32. The primary factors that determine if a volcano erupts violently or quietly is which of the following?

a. groundwater and precipitation
b. magma composition, magma temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
c. sedimentary rock composition, sedimentary rock temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the sedimentary rock
d. groundwater, precipitation, and surface water

(The correct answer is "magma composition, magma temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the magma.")

33. Imagine that a scientist wants to vary the amount of water given to tomato plants and observe (and record) the resulting growth of each plant. She uses identical seeds, soil, and sunlight for each plant. Therefore, the only thing that she varies is the amount of water given to each plant. For this experiment, the amount of water is which one of the following?

a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. fixed variable
d. all of the above

(The correct answer is "independent variable.")

34. Atmosphere refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

(The correct answer is "air.")

35. Hydrosphere refers to which one of the following?

a. air
b. water
c. land
d. birds

(The correct answer is "water.")

36. Longitude refers to which one of the following?

a. distance east or west of the prime meridian
b. distance north or south of the equator
c. distance from Earth to the Sun
d. distance from Earth to the Moon

(The correct answer is "distance east or west of the prime meridian.")

37. Which one of the following best describes metamorphic rock?

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens following a volcanic eruption
b. rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, snow, ice, and wind
d. rock found at the inner core of the Earth

(The correct answer is "rock formed from preexisting rock that is subject to heat and pressure.")

38. What type of plate boundary occurs when two plates move apart and away from each other (for example, the mid-Atlantic ridge of the Atlantic ocean).

a. divergent boundary
b. convergent boundary
c. transform fault boundary
d. water boundary

(The correct answer is "divergent boundary.")

39. A student visits a volcano and examines rock that solidified from the lava and magma. The student is most likely to find which one of the following?

a. metamorphic rock
b. sedimentary rock
c. igneous rock
d. moon rock

(The correct answer is "igneous.")

40. Important sources of drinking water and irrigation water are the large areas of rock (or soil) through which groundwater moves easily. These are called which one of the following?

a. asteroids
b. benthos
c. aquifers
d. deltas

(The correct answer is "aquifers.")