Return to Home Page

Name: ______________________

Astronomy & Earth


1. In science, a ___________ is a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions.

a. theory
b. bias
c. fossil
d. predisposition

2. The portion of the Earth, including air, water, and land, in which living things grow, reproduce, and are interconnected is often called the ____________ .

a. biosphere
b. lithosphere
c. troposphere
d. hydrosphere

3. Imagine that you tie someone up to a special chair so they can't move and then apply an electric shock to them at 5 volts, 10 volts, 20 volts, etc., while marking on a graph how loud they scream at each voltage. (Never do this experiment!) You control and vary the applied voltage. Therefore, the voltage is the "independent" variable. The response of the tied-up person to the change in voltage, which is the "loudness of the scream," is the _________ variable.

a. independent
b. dependent
c. fixed
d. all of the above

4. The three major types of rock are ____________ .

a. large, medium, and small
b. lithosphere, troposphere, and hydrosphere
c. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
d. none of the above

5. The air in our classroom is primarily ____________ .

a. oxygen and nitrogen
b. oxygen and carbon compounds
c. carbon compounds and nitrogen
d. water and dust

6. Magma is molten material that forms deep beneath the Earth's surface. __________ rock forms when magma cools and hardens beneath the surface or as the result of a volcanic eruption.

a. igneous
b. metamorphic
c. sedimentary
d. precession

7. Metamorphic rock is ____________ .

a. rock formed when magma cools and hardens
b. rock formed by the alteration of preexisting rock in the Earth that is subject to heat and pressure
c. rock formed by weathering from water, ice, and wind
d. rock at the inner core of the Earth

8. Air pollution results from ____________ .

a. coal-fired power plants
b. automobile and truck exhaust
c. open burning of leaves and garbage
d. all of the above

9. The main result of the Earth's rotation about its axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. nuclear fusion
d. nuclear fission

10. The Solar System's inner planets (also called rocky planets or terrestrial planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

11. The Earth's _____________ is similar to a spinning top. It causes the North Pole to point at different stars during a 26,000-year cycle.

a. seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. precession
d. nuclear fusion

12. Earthquakes are usually associated with large fractures in the Earth's crust and mantle called _____________ .

a. faults
b. eclipses
c. precession
d. nuclear fusion

13. The main result of the 23.5 degrees tilt of the Earth's axis is ____________ .

a. the seasons (winter, summer, spring, fall)
b. day and night
c. high tide
d. low tide

14. The primary factors that determine wheher a volcano erupts violently or quietly include ____________ .

a. magma composition, magma temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the magma
b. sedimentary rock composition, sedimentary rock temperature, the amount of dissolved gases in the sedimentary rock
c. groundwater, precipitation, and surface water
d. groundwater and precipitation

15. A meteoroid that actually reaches the Earth's surface is called a _____________ .

a. comet
b. meteorite
c. eclipse
d. precession

16. A solar eclipse occurs when _____________ .

a. a full moon occurs
b. a solar flare occurs
c. the earth moves in a line between the sun and the Earth, casting a shadow on the moon
d. the moon moves in a line between the Earth and the sun, casting a shadow on Earth

17. The Solar System's outer planets (also called gaseous planets or Jovian planets) are _____________ .

a. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
b. Mercury and Earth
c. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
d. Jupiter and Earth

18. A seismograph is an instrument that records _____________ .

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. river velocity
d. earthquake waves

19. Heliocentric describes _____________ .

a. solar flares
b. solar wind
c. the modern view that the sun is at the center of the solar system
d. the ancient view that the Earth is at the center of the solar system

20. A galaxy is a _____________ .

a. group of planets held together by gravity
b. group of stars, dust, and gases held together by gravity
c. group of moons held together by gravity
d. group of asteroids and dust held together by gravity