Vocabulary for Life and Classification

What are the characteristics of life?

Define "biotic" and "abiotic." Give examples of each.

What do we mean when we talk about homeostasis?


Classification System for Living Things

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species


Kingdoms

Animals
Plants
Fungi
Protists
Bacteria
Archaea


Cell Structure and Function

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes


Eukaryotic Cell

It has a "nucleus" that contains the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). The DNA is the genetic code for the cell. The nucleus is surrounded by two membranes that are capable of passing chemicals in and out of the nucleus.

The cell material that is outside of the nucleus is called the "cytoplasm." The cytoplasm contains various structures called "organelles" which perform specialized functions for the cell. (Organelles perform functions for the cell in much the same way that organs (heart, lungs, pancreas, etc.) perform functions for the human body. The outside of the cell is the cell membrane (also called plasma membrane) which handles the movement of chemicals in and out of the cell.


Ribosomes

The ribosomes are the location for protein synthesis in the cell. Proteins are synthesized by combining amino acids into long chains or structures.


Vacuoles

Vacuoles are organelles that provide for storage of key chemicals within the cell.


Lysosomes

Lysosomes are organelles that provide cleanup, breakdown, and reuse of materials in the cell.


Mitochondria

The mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of the cell.