Name: ______________________

Evolution & Natural Selection

1. In the diagram below of undisturbed sedimentary rock strata, in which rock layer are the fossils of more complex animals generally found?

Biology
a. Layer A above.
b. Layer B above.
c. Layer C above.
d. Layer E above.

2. A heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment is called an ___________ .

a. adaptation.
b. extinction.
c. mutation.
d. homeostasis.

3. A heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment is called ____________.

a. mutation
b. extinction
c. adaption
d. homeostasis

4. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram, which illustrates evolutionary pathways of some species. Which statement is a valid inference based on the information in the diagram?

a. Species A is the common ancestor of these species.
b. Species B is the common ancestor of these species.
c. Species C is the common ancestor of these species.
d. Species D is the common ancestor of these species.

5. If a cell is prokaryotic, then it ________.

a. is a eukaryote
b. has a nucleus
c. both of the above
d. none of the above

6. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals
b. Plants
c. Fungi
d. None of the above

7. Which one of the following is True?

a. All living things are made of cells that have a nucleus.
b. All living things store genetic information using the same molecules — DNA and RNA.
c. All living things have the ability to move.
d. All living things are made of cells that do NOT have a nucleus.

8. Which one of the following best defines homeostasis as it relates to living cells?

a. tendency to reproduce rapidly
b. tendency to convert rapidly from biotic to abiotic
c. tendency to grow too fast for the DNA to be able to function properly
d. tendency to maintain a stable internal environment of pH and temperature

9. Young birds that have been raised in isolation from members of their own species build nests that are characteristic of their species. This suggests that the nest-building behavior is ___________.

a. genetically inherited from parents
b. learned by watching members of their species
c. a disadvantage to the survival of the species
d. a direct result of the type of food the bird eats

10. The term "evolution" is best described as the ____________.

a. process of change in a population over time
b. process by which organisms become extinct
c. reproductive isolation of members of certain species
d. replacement of one community by another

11. The portion of the Earth, including air, water, and land, in which living things grow, reproduce, and are interconnected is often called the ____________ .

a. lithosphere
b. biosphere
c. troposphere
d. homeostasis.

12. For the purpose of classification, which one of the following starts at very general and moves to very specific?

a. Order - Kingdom - Species - Class - Phylum - Genus - Family
b. Order - Kingdom - Species - Class - Genus - Phylum - Family
c. Species - Genus - Family - Order - Class - Phylum - Kingdom
d. Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species

13. Members of a population may become separated from the original population by a newly formed mountain range. This occurrence is an example of ________ .

a. geographic isolation
b. reproductive isolation
c. natural selection
d. struggle for existence

14. Characteristics that are harmful to a species tend to decrease in frequency from generation to generation because these characteristics usually _____________.

a. have a low survival value for the species
b. have a high survival value for the species
c. are inherited by more individuals
d. affect only the older members of the population

15. When penicillin was first introduced, it was very effective in destroying most of the bacteria that cause gonorrhea. Today, certain varieties of this bacterium are resistant to penicillin. Which statement best explains the appearance of these resistant varieties?

a. Penicillin stimulated the bacteria to become resistant, and this resistance was passed to the offspring.
b. Penicillin killed the susceptible bacteria, while naturally resistant varieties survived and reproduced.
c. Penicillin used today is not as strong as the penicillin used when it was first introduced.
d. Penicillin is no longer used.

16. Which of the following is NOT one of the three patterns of diversity noted by Charles Darwin in the 1800s?

a. Species vary globally.
b. Species vary locally.
c. Species vary over time.
d. Species vary only after volcanoes and earthquakes.

17. Nature provides variations in the characteristics of organisms, but when humans act to select the characteristics they find useful, for example with dog breeders, we call it ___________ .

a. artificial selection.
b. natural selection.
c. mutation.
d. homeostasis.

18. Imagine that you tie someone up to a special chair so they can't move and then apply an electric shock to them at 5 volts, 10 volts, 20 volts, etc., while marking on a graph how loud they scream at each voltage. (Never do this experiment!) You control and vary the applied voltage. Therefore, the voltage is the "independent" variable. The response of the tied-up person to the change in voltage, which is the "loudness of the scream," is the _________ variable.

a. fixed
b. independent
c. dependent
d. all of the above

19. Which factor has most likely caused the rapid increase in the number of pesticide-resistant insect species over the past 30 years?

a. a decrease in food production
b. an increase in competition between plants
c. more widespread use of pesticides
d. greater mating between insect species

20. After the Industrial Revolution, dark-colored moths outnumbered light-colored moths in certain regions of England. Within the past 40 years, factories in these regions have added scrubbers and air purifiers to their smokestacks to reduce the air pollution. As a result, the relative number of light-colored moths has increased. The probable reason for this increase is that __________ .

a. the environment (cleaner air) favored the survival of dark-colored moths over light-colored moths
b. the environment (cleaner air) favored the survival of light-colored moths over dark-colored moths
c. dark-colored moths turned light because they needed to survive in the cleaner air
d. overpopulation occurred and most of the light-colored moths died, leaving only dark-colored moths to reproduce

21. A population of animals is permanently split by a natural barrier into two separate populations in different environments. What will likely result after a long period of time?

a. The evolution of the two populations will be identical.
b. The production of variations will stop in the two populations.
c. The two populations will evolve into separate species.
d. Autotrophic nutrition will replace heterotrophic nutrition in the two populations.

22. In science, a ___________ is a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions.

a. hypothesis
b. bias
c. fossil
d. theory

23. Many organisms can NOT make their own food and are NOT capable of photosynthesis. These organisms, which obtain energy by consuming other organisms, are called ________ ?

a. amino acids
b. autotrophs
c. heterotrophs
d. macromolecules

24. The formal "scientific name" for living things has a first part (the Genus), and a second part (the Species within the Genus). Since the Genus for humans is Homo, and the Species name within Homo for humans is Sapiens, humans are called ____________.

c. sapiens sapiens
d. homo home
a. homo sapiens
b. sapiens homo

25. Which of the following is NOT a correct pairing?

a. Abiotic -> pH
b. Abiotic -> Temperature
c. Biotic -> Bacteria
d. Biotic -> Pressure

26. Which factor has most likely caused the rapid increase in the number of pesticide-resistant insect species over the past 30 years?

a. more widespread use of pesticides
b. a decrease in food production
c. an increase in competition between plants
d. greater mating between insect species

27. Evolution is ________________ .

a. The time when apes turned into humans.
b. The process of change over time.
c. The time when the solar system first formed.
d. The time when the earth first formed.

28. Which one of the following definitions for genetic terminology is NOT correct?

a. Trait: any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
b. Heredity: passing of traits from parent to offspring.
c. Recessive Gene: the stronger and more dominant of two genes.
d. Genetics: the study of heredity.

29. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within our bodies. One of the most important functions of proteins is to catalyze (speed up) many of the chemical reactions taking place in our cells. Protein is made up of long chains of _________.

a. carbon dioxide
b. amino acids
c. salts
d. bacteria

30. The "basic unit of organization" of living things is the ____.

a. atom
b. electron
c. macromolecule
d. cell

31. An organism is eukaryotic and autotrophic. Which one of the following is a possible classification?

a. Animal
b. Plant
c. Bacteria
d. Archaea

32. The term "evolution" is best described as the ____________.

b. process by which organisms become extinct
a. process of change in a population over time
c. reproductive isolation of members of certain species
d. replacement of one community by another

33. Which of the following is NOT one of the three patterns of diversity noted by Charles Darwin in the 1800s?

a. Species vary globally.
b. Species vary locally.
c. Species vary over time.
d. Species vary only after volcanoes and earthquakes.

34. Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago, life on Earth began with ___________.

a. simple, single-celled organisms
b. simple, multicellular organisms
c. complex, single-celled organisms
d. complex, multicellular organisms

35. Which of the following is made of cells that have a nucleus with DNA?

a. zebra
b. tree
c. grass
d. all of the above


36. Which one of the following is False?

a. All living things respond to their environment.
b. All living things grow, develop, and reproduce.
c. All living things have the ability to move.
d. All living things obtain and use energy.

37. In plants, photosynthesis takes place in the __________.

a. chloroplast
b. cell membrane
c. nucleus
d. cell wall

38. Many organisms can NOT make their own food and are NOT capable of photosynthesis. These organisms, which obtain energy by consuming other organisms, are called ________ ?

a. amino acids
b. autotrophs
c. proteins
d. heterotrophs

39. The genotype is the gene combination for a given trait, whereas the phenotype is the physical feature that we actually observe. Therefore, two plants might have the same phenotype (for example, both are tall in appearance), yet still have different genotypes (for example, one tall plant has genotype TT, while the other tall plant has genotype Tt). And we observe a small plant only if the genotype is (tt). In this simple example, we see that __________ .

a. the alleles (T) and (t) are both recessive.
b. the alleles (T) and (t) are both dominant.
c. the allele for tallness (T) is recessive.
d. the allele for tallness (T) is dominant.

40. The graph below represents the populations of two different species in an ecosystem over a period of several years. Which statement is a possible explanation for the changes shown?

Biology
Species A is the predator of Species B.
Species A is better adapted to this environment.
Species B is better adapted to this environment.
Species B is a parasite that has benefited species A.

41. Which of the following is made of cells that have a nucleus with DNA?

a. yeast
b. wasp
c. horse
d. all of the above

42. The diversity of organisms present on Earth is the result of __________.

a. ecosystem stability
b. artificial selection
c. population stability
d. natural selection

43. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals & Plants
b. Protists
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria (Eubacteria and Archaea)

44. The Kingdom Fungi (including yeast) encompasses some of the most important organisms, both in terms of their ecological and economic roles. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi (mycorrhizae) that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs, such as penicillin and other antibiotics. Which of the following is true?

a. fish are members of the Fungi Kingdom
b. bacteria are members of the Fungi Kingdom
c. yeast are members of the Fungi Kingdom
d. None of the above

45. Fungi cause a number of plant and animal diseases: in humans, ringworm, athlete's foot, and several more serious diseases are caused by fungi. Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, the fungal diseases are very difficult to treat.

a. fish are members of the Fungi Kingdom
b. bacteria are members of the Fungi Kingdom
c. yeast are members of the Fungi Kingdom
d. None of the above

46. The words "Prokaryotes" and "Protists" begin with the same letters, but they mean very different things. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and the archaea. Bacteria and archaea do not contain a cell nucleus. The Protist Kingdom, which are neither Animal or Plant, includes many of the microscopic organisms found in water taken from any pond or lake. Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Many protists, such as the algae, are photosynthetic and are vital primary producers in ecosystems, particularly in the ocean as part of the plankton. Which of the following is true?

a. Protist are Prokaryotes
b. Protists are Eukaryotes, not Prokaryotes
c. Protists are Animals
d. Protist are Fungi

47. The diversity of organisms present on Earth is the result of __________.

a. ecosystem stability
b. artificial selection
c. natural selection
d. population stability

48. A human visiting a zoo observes a zebra, a giraffe, and a monkey.

a. Humans evolved from Monkeys.
b. Giraffes evolved from Zebras.
c. Monkeys evolved from Humans.
d. None of the above.

49. If a cell is eukaryotic, then it ________.

a. is a prokaryote
b. has a nucleus
c. does not have a nucleus
d. virus

50. Which one of the following is made of cells that have "cell walls?"

a. human
b. frog
c. fly
d. tomato plant



thm-b