Name: ___________________

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1. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to make a strand of DNA. Based on this information, we know that which one of the following is true?

a. DNA polymerase is a carbohydrate.
b. DNA polymerase is a protein.
c. DNA polymerase is a lipid
d. DNA polymerase is a nucleic acid.

(Since enzymes are proteins, we know that the correct answer is "DNA polymerase is a protein.")

2. Four nucleotides make up DNA. The nucleotides are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Due to DNA’s double-helix structure, these nucleotides always occur in pairs called base pairs. As a result, we know that in DNA each adenine (A) is always paired with which one of the following?

a. adenine (A)
b. cytosine (C)
c. guanine (G)
d. thymine (T)

(The correct answer is "thymine (T).")

3. Due to DNA’s double-helix structure and base pairing, we know that in DNA each cytosine (C) is always paired with which one of the following?

a. adenine (A)
b. cytosine (C)
c. guanine (G)
d. thymine (T)

(The correct answer is "guanine (G).")

4. The scientific study of crime scene evidence is which one of the following?

a. Gene Therapy
b. Recombinant DNA
c. Forensics

(The correct answer is "Forensics.")

5. Differentiated, specialized cells develop from which one of the following?

a. cancer cells
b. white blood cells
c. red blood cells
d. stem cells

(The correct answer is "stem cells.")

6. DNA is made of long chains of which one of the following?

a. nucleotides
b. amino acids
c. glucose
d. fatty acids

(The correct answer is "nucleotides.")

7. The analysis of sections of DNA that have little or no known function, but vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals is called which one of the following?

a. DNA Fingerprinting
b. Recombinant DNA
c. DNA mutation

(The correct answer is "DNA Fingerprinting.")

8. The process that uses oxygen to release energy from food is called which one of the following?

a. photosynthesis
b. cellular respiration
c. fermentation
d. DNA mutation

(The correct answer is "cellular respiration.")

9. Hemoglobin is a protein made up of four polypeptide chains. Based on this information, we know that which one of the following is true?

a. Hemoglobin is made up of amino acids.
b. Hemoglobin is made up of glucose.
c. Hemoglobin is made up of nucleotides.
d. Hemoglobin is made up of fatty acids.

(Since proteins are made up of amino acids, we know that the correct answer is "Hemoglobin is made up of amino acids.")

10. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the nucleus divides is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. glycolysis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "mitosis.")

11. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. glycolysis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "cytokinesis.")

12. Cells package their DNA very carefully into a specific structure. This structure, which makes it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division, is called which one of the following?

a. chloroplast
b. chlorophyll
c. chromosome
d. carbohydrate

(The correct answer is "chromosome.")

13. Any relationship in which two species live closely together is called symbiosis. Biologists recognize three main classes of symbiotic relationships in nature. The three main classes of symbiosis are the following: mutualism; parasitism; and commensalism. When an organism lives inside or on another organism and harms that organism it is called which one of the following?

a. mutualism
b. parasitism
c. commensalism

(The correct answer is "parasitism.")

14. The fluid portion of the cell outside of the nucleus is called which one of the following?

a. nucleus
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. cytoplasm

(The correct answer is "cytoplasm.")

15. The molecule that makes a copy of the DNA information in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
b. transfer RNA (tRNA)
c. messenger RNA (mRNA)
d. none of the above

(The correct answer is "messenger RNA (mRNA).")

16. The organelle found in plant cells that holds the green pigment chlorophyll and uses the energy from sunlight to make food is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. cell well
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "chloroplast.")

17. The organelle that acts as the powerhouse of the cell by changing food (glucose) into energy (ATP) for the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "mitochondria.")

18. Which one of the following is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "a" since oxygen and glucose are inputs to the process, while carbon dioxide, water, and energy are outputs.)

19. Which one of the following is the correct equation for photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "d" since carbon dioxide, water and light energy are inputs to the process, while oxygen and glucose are outputs.)

20. The portion of the cell that is found in plants (but not animals) and supports, shapes, and protects the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. nucleus
c. cell wall
d. chlorophyll

(The correct answer is "cell wall.")

21. The double-layered sheet of fatty material that makes up the cell membrane is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. lipid bilayer

(The correct answer is "lipid bilayer.")

22. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell.")

23. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell.")

24. If energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell, what is most likely occurring?

a. passive transport
b. active transport
c. DNA mutations
d. RNA mutations

(The correct answer is "active transport.")

25. Which one of following correctly lists the three stages of cellular respiration?

a. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
b. messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
c. fermentation, photosynthesis, reproduction
d. none of the above

(The correct answer is "glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.")