Name: ___________________

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1. The DNA and RNA molecules are which one of the following four macromolecules?

a. nucleic acids (long chain of nucleotides and base pairs)
b. lipids (fats)
c. carbohydrates (starches, sugars, glucose)
d. proteins (long chain of amino acids)

(The correct answer is "nucleic acids (long chain of nucleotides and base pairs).")

2. Cells package their DNA very carefully into a specific structure. This structure, which makes it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division, is called which one of the following?

a. chromosome
b. chlorophyll
c. chloroplast
d. carbohydrate

(The correct answer is "chromosome.")

3. The human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs, which are contained within how many pairs of chromosomes?

a. 23 pairs of chromosomes (total of 46 chromosomes)
b. 46 pairs of chromosomes (total of 92 chromosomes)
c. 92 pairs of chromosomes (total of 184 chromosomes)
d. none of the above

(The correct answer is "23 pairs of chromosomes (total of 46 chromosomes).")

4. Two of the 46 human chromosomes contained in a typical human diploid cell are "sex chromosomes" that determine whether an individual is male or female. Which one of the following is correct?

a. If the two sex chromosomes are XX the individual is a female
b. If the two sex chromosomes are XX the individual is a male
c. If the two sex chromosomes are XY the individual is a female
d. none of the above

(The correct answer is "if the two sex chromosomes are XX the individual is a female.")

5. All human cells carry which one of the following?

a. one X and one Y chromosome
b. a pair of X chromosomes
c. at least one X chromosome
d. at least one Y chromosome

(The correct answer is "at least one X chromosome.")

6. The laboratory process of joining together DNA sequences from two different organisms for the purpose of producing useful new genetic combinations (for agriculture, science, or medicine) is called which one of the following?

a. Genealogical DNA Testing
b. DNA Transcription
c. DNA Mutation
d. Recombinant DNA

(The correct answer is "Recombinant DNA.")

7. Enzymes are essential to cells since they speed up the rate of chemical reactions. Enzymes are made of which one of the following?

a. proteins
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. carbohydrates

(The correct answer is "proteins.")

8. What process best explains how a nerve cell and a muscle cell can both develop from the same fertilized egg?

a. differentiation
b. natural selection
c. selective breeding
d. genetic engineering

(The correct answer is "differentiation.")

9. Differentiated, specialized cells develop from which one of the following?

a. stem cells
b. liver cells
c. dead cells
d. white blood cells

(The correct answer is "stem cells.")

10. In the field of genetics, the difference between "phenotype" and "genotype" is which one of the following?

a. "Phenotype" is the physical characteristics of an organism, while "Genotype" is the genetic makeup of an organism.
b. "Genotype" is the physical characteristics of an organism, while "Phenotype" is the genetic makeup of an organism.
c. "Phenotype" and "Genotype" mean the same thing.
d. None of the above.

(The correct answer is "Phenotype" is the physical characteristics of an organism, while "Genotype" is the genetic makeup of an organism.")

11. Any specialized structure that performs important functions in eukaryotic cells (such as, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and ribosomes) is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "organelle.")

12. The cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. lysosome
c. mitochondrion
d. vacuole

(The correct answer is "vacuole.")

13. The organelle found in plant cells that holds the green pigment chlorophyll and uses the energy from sunlight to make food (glucose) is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. cell well
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "chloroplast.")

14. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the nucleus divides is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "mitosis.")

15. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "cytokinesis.")

16. The organelle that acts as the powerhouse of the cell by changing food (glucose) into energy (ATP) for the cell is which one of the following?

a. mitochondria
b. chloroplast
c. ribosome
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "mitochondria.")

17. For a scientist studying the movement of water into and out of the cell through the cell membrane, which of the following is the best description of osmosis?

a. Osmosis pertains to RNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
b. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become very high on one side and very low on the other side.
c. Osmosis pertains to DNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
d. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.

(The correct answer is "Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.")

18. Which one of the following is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "a.")

19. Which one of the following is the correct equation for photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "d.")

20. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals & Plants
b. Protists
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria

(The correct answer is "Bacteria.")

21. What is the complementary DNA strand for the following strand of DNA: AGC CAT GTA TAC ?

a. ACG GAT CTA TAG
b. TCG GTA CAT ATG
c. TGC CTA GAT ATC
d. UCG CUA CAU AUG

(The correct answer is "TCG GTA CAT ATG.")

22. The sequence ATA GCA CAT GTA makes up a segment of DNA. What is the mRNA sequence transcribed from the DNA segment? (Remember that mRNA will not have any "T" since the "T" is replaced with "U" in all RNA sequences.)

a. TAT CGT GTA CAT
b. TAT GCT CTA GAT
c. UAU CGU GUA CAU
d. UAU GCU CUA CAU

(The correct answer is "UAU CGU GUA CAU.")

23. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell.")

24. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell.")

25. Enzymes are made of proteins. Which best describes the important role of enzymes in cells?

a. biological molecules that slow down chemical reactions in cells
b. biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
c. biological molecules that make up the subunits of DNA
d. biological molecules that make up the subunits of RNA

(The correct answer is "biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.")

26. Protein is made up of which one of the following?

a. amino acids
b. glucose
c. nucleotides
d. fatty acids

(The correct answer is "amino acids.")

27. The molecule that makes a copy of the DNA information (transcription) in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

(The correct answer is "messenger RNA.")

28. The molecule that carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome in order that they can be combined to form protein (protein synthesis) is called which one of the following?

a. transfer RNA (tRNA)
b. glucose
c. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

(The correct answer is "transfer RNA.")

29. Enzymes are made up of which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. proteins
c. nucleic acids
d. lipids

(The correct answer is "proteins.")

30. What is the function of autotrophs in the carbon cycle?

a. to use oxygen to produce glucose
b. to take in excess water
c. to feed on herbivores
d. to use carbon dioxide to produce glucose

(The correct answer is "to use carbon dioxide to produce glucose.")

31. The three stages of cellular respiration are ____________ .

a. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
b. producer, consumer, decomposer
c. DNA, RNA, ATP
d. mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

(The correct answer is "glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain.")

32. When a football defensive lineman picks up a fumble at the other team's 20 yard-line and tries to return it for a touchdown he quickly runs out of breath (limited oxygen) after only ten yards and desperately needs which one of the following to provide additional energy to his muscles since the available oxygen has been mostly used up in cell respiration?

a. RNA mutation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. lactic acid fermentation

(The correct answer is "lactic acid fermentation.")

33. People use which one of the following to make alcoholic beverages?

a. RNA mutation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. lactic acid fermentation

(The correct answer is "alcoholic fermentation.")