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1. Enzymes are essential to cells since they speed up the rate of chemical reactions. Enzymes are made of which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins

(The correct answer is "proteins.")

2. The laboratory process of joining together DNA sequences from two different organisms for the purpose of producing useful new genetic combinations (for agriculture, science, or medicine) is called which one of the following?

a. Genealogical DNA Testing
b. DNA Transcription
c. DNA Mutation
d. Recombinant DNA

(The correct answer is "Recombinant DNA.")

3. Differentiated, specialized cells develop from which one of the following?

a. cancer cells
b. dead cells
c. stem cells
d. white blood cells

(The correct answer is "stem cells.")

4. When a football defensive lineman picks up a fumble at the other team's 20 yard-line and tries to return it for a touchdown he quickly runs out of breath (limited oxygen) after only ten yards and desperately needs which one of the following to provide additional energy to his muscles since the available oxygen has been mostly used up in cell respiration?

a. lactic acid fermentation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. RNA mutation

(The correct answer is "lactic acid fermentation.")

5. What is DNA made of, and what is its function?

a. DNA is made up of "monosaccharides (sugars)," and they provide quick energy for the cell.
b. DNA is made up of "lipids (fats)," and they store energy and provide insulation.
c. DNA is made up of "proteins," and they are enzymes that speed up chemical reactions.
d. DNA is made up of "nucleotides," and they store genetic information.

(The correct answer is "DNA is made up of "nucleotides," and they store genetic information.")

6. What structure shown below is found in a plant cell but is absent in an animal cell?

a. nucleus
b. ribosome
c. mitochondria
d. chloroplast

(The correct answer is "chloroplast.")

7. For a scientist studying the movement of water into and out of the cell through the cell membrane, which of the following is the best description of osmosis?

a. Osmosis pertains to RNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
b. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become very high on one side and very low on the other side.
c. Osmosis pertains to DNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
d. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.

(The correct answer is "Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.")

8. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the nucleus divides is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "mitosis.")

9. The part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

(The correct answer is "cytokinesis.")

10. Cells package their DNA very carefully into a specific structure. This structure, which makes it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division, is called which one of the following?

a. chloroplast
b. chlorophyll
c. chromosome
d. carbohydrate

(The correct answer is "chromosome.")

11. A disorder in which some of the body’s own cells lose the ability to control growth is called which one of the following?

a. chlorophyll
b. apoptosis
c. cancer
d. chromosome

(The correct answer is "cancer.")

12. Any relationship in which two species live closely together is called symbiosis. Biologists recognize three main classes of symbiotic relationships in nature. The three main classes of symbiosis are the following: mutualism; parasitism; and commensalism. When an organism lives inside or on another organism and harms that organism it is called which one of the following?

a. mutualism
b. parasitism
c. commensalism

(The correct answer is "parasitism.")

13. The fluid portion of the cell outside of the nucleus is which one of the following?

a. nucleus
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. cytoplasm

(The correct answer is "cytoplasm.")

14. The double-layered sheet of fatty material that makes up the cell membrane is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. lipid bilayer

(The correct answer is "lipid bilayer.")

15. Any specialized structure that performs important functions in eukaryotic cells (such as, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and ribosomes) is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "organelle.")

16. The portion of the cell that is found in plants (but not animals) and supports, shapes, and protects the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. nucleus
c. cell wall
d. chlorophyll

(The correct answer is "cell wall.")

17. The organelle found in plant cells that holds the green pigment chlorophyll and uses the energy from sunlight to make food is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. cell well
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "chloroplast.")

18. The organelle that acts as the powerhouse of the cell by changing food (glucose) into energy (ATP) for the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. nucleus

(The correct answer is "mitochondria.")

19. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals & Plants
b. Protists
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria

(The correct answer is "Bacteria.")

20. Proteins are made of amino acids. For the genetic code to make proteins, each "word" of the code uses three letters to specify an amino acid. The three-letter code is called which one of the following?

a. chlorophyll
b. codon
c. chloroplast
d. cytoplasm

(The correct answer is "codon.")

21. Which one of the following is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "a.")

22. Which one of the following is the correct equation for photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

(The correct answer is "d.")

23. Enzymes are made of proteins. Which best describes the important role of enzymes in cells?

a. biological molecules that slow down chemical reactions in cells
b. biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
c. biological molecules that make up the subunits of DNA
d. biological molecules that make up the subunits of RNA

(The correct answer is "biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells.")

24. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell.")

25. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

(The correct answer is "four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell.")

26. Which one of the following is not true?

a. Two of the 46 chromosomes in the human genome are known as sex chromosomes.
b. Females have two copies of the X chromosome.
c. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome.
d. The nucleus of a human body cell has 20 pairs of chromosomes.

(The correct answer (which is not true) is "The nucleus of a human body cell has 20 pairs of chromosomes..")

27. The molecule that makes a copy of the DNA information (transcription) in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

(The correct answer is "messenger RNA.")

28. The molecule that carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome in order that they can be combined to form protein (protein synthesis) is called which one of the following?

a. transfer RNA (tRNA)
b. glucose
c. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

(The correct answer is "transfer RNA.")

29. Enzymes are made up of which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. proteins
c. nucleic acids
d. lipids

(The correct answer is "proteins.")

30. If energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell, what is most likely occurring?

a. passive transport
b. active transport
c. DNA mutations
d. RNA mutations

(The correct answer is "active transport.")

31. The DNA and RNA molecules are which one of the following four macromolecules?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins

(The correct answer is "nucleic acids.")

32. The three stages of cellular respiration are ____________ .

a. producer, consumer, decomposer
b. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
c. DNA, RNA, ATP
d. mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

(The correct answer is "glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain.")

33. Protein is made up of which one of the following?

a. amino acids
b. glucose
c. nucleotides
d. fatty acids

(The correct answer is "amino acids.")