Name: ___________________


1. The part of Eukaryotic Cell Division during which the cell nucleus divides is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

2. The part of Eukaryotic Cell Division during which the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells is called which one of the following?

a. mitosis
b. cytokinesis
c. meiosis
d. mitochondria

3. Cells package their DNA very carefully into a specific structure. This structure, which makes it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division, is called which one of the following?

a. chloroplast
b. chlorophyll
c. carbohydrate
d. chromosome

4. A disorder in which some of the body’s own cells lose the ability to control growth is called which one of the following?

a. chlorophyll
b. apoptosis
c. chromosome
d. cancer

5. Cells become specialized through the process of differentiation. According to our textbook, your body has approximately how many different cell types?

a. 20
b. 200
c. 20 million
d. 2 billion

6. Differentiated, specialized cells develop from which one of the following?

a. stem cells
b. cancer cells
c. dead cells
d. white blood cells

7. An interaction in which one animal (the predator) captures and feeds on another animal is called which one of the following?

a. habitat
b. niche
c. predation
d. herbivory

8. Any relationship in which two species live closely together is called symbiosis. Biologists recognize three main classes of symbiotic relationships in nature. The three main classes of symbiosis are the following: mutualism; parasitism; and commensalism. Which answer below is the best answer?

a. Mutualism is when both organisms benefit from the relationship.
b. Parasitism is when an organism lives inside or on another organism and harms it.
c. Commensalism is when one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
d. All of the above statements are true.

9. An ecological succession involves a series of changes in a community following a disturbance, such as a volcano, fire, or retreating glacier. A secondary succession is which one of the following?

a. Succession in which no trace of a previous community is present.
b. Succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbances.
c. Succession that involves no changes to the area.

10. The fluid portion of the cell outside of the nucleus is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus

11. The double-layered sheet of fatty material that makes up the cell membrane is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. lipid bilayer

12. Any specialized structure that performs important functions in eukaryotic cells (such as, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and ribosomes) is called which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus

13. The portion of the cell that is found in plants (but not animals) and supports, shapes, and protects the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. nucleus
c. cell wall
d. chlorophyll

14. The organelle found in plant cells that holds the green pigment chlorophyll and uses the energy from sunlight to make food is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. cell well
d. nucleus

15. The organelle that acts as the powerhouse of the cell by changing food (glucose) into energy (ATP) for the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. nucleus

16. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals & Plants
b. Protists
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria

17. Proteins are made of amino acids. For the genetic code to make proteins, each "word" of the code uses three letters to specify an amino acid. The three-letter code is called which one of the following?

a. chlorophyll
b. codon
c. chloroplast
d. cytoplasm

18. The process by which cells release energy (ATP) from food in the absence of oxygen is called which one of the following?

a. fermentation
b. chlorophyll
c. chloroplast
d. cytoplasm

19. What type of organic molecules are enzymes?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins

20. When a football defensive lineman picks up a fumble at the other team's 20 yard-line and tries to return it for a touchdown he quickly runs out of breath (no more oxygen) after only ten yards and desperately needs which one of the following to provide additional energy to his muscles since the available oxygen has been all used up in cell respiration?

a. lactic acid fermentation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. RNA mutation

21. What are the subunits of DNA, and what is their function?

a. DNA is made up of "nucleotides" (nucleic acids) that store information.
b. DNA is made up of "lipids" that store energy and provide insulation.
c. DNA is made up of "proteins" that are enzymes that speed up chemical reactions.
d. DNA is made up of "monosaccharides" (sugars) that provide quick energy for the cell.

22. What structure shown below is found in a plant cell, but is absent in an animal cell?

a. nucleus
b. ribosome
c. mitochondria
d. chloroplast

23. Which one of the following is the correct equation for photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

24. Which one of the following is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose

25. A freshwater plant is placed in a container of saltwater. What will most likely happen to the cells of the plant?

a. The plant cells will shrink because water will move out of them due to osmosis.
b. The plant cells will swell because water will move into them due to osmosis.
c. The plant cells will suddenly undergo DNA or RNA mutations due to osmosis.
d. Nothing will change due to osmosis.

26. For a scientist studying the movement of water into and out of the cell through the cell membrane, which of the following is the best description of osmosis?

a. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.
b. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become very high on one side and very low on the other side.
c. Osmosis pertains to DNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
d. Osmosis pertains to RNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.

27. Enzymes are made of proteins. Which best describes the important role of enzymes in cells?

a. biological molecules that slow down chemical reactions in cells
b. biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
c. biological molecules that make up the subunits of DNA
d. biological molecules that make up the subunits of RNA

28. Enzymes are made up of which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins

29. If energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell, what is most likely occurring?

a. passive transport
b. active transport
c. DNA mutations
d. RNA mutations

30. The DNA and RNA molecules are which one of the following four macromolecules?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. proteins
d. nucleic acids

31. The three stages of cellular respiration are ____________ .

a. producer, consumer, decomposer
b. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
c. DNA, RNA, ATP
d. mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

32. The genotype is the gene combination for a given trait, whereas the phenotype is the physical feature that we actually observe. Therefore, two plants might have the same phenotype (for example, both are Tall in appearance), yet still have different genotypes (for example, one Tall Plant has genotype TT, while the other Tall Plant has genotype Tt). We observe a small plant only if the genotype is (tt). For this simple example, which one of the following is correct?

a. the allele for Tallness (T) is recessive
b. the allele for Tallness (T) is dominant
c. the alleles (T) and (t) are both recessive
d. the alleles (T) and (t) are both dominant

33. All cells have cell membranes which need to be flexible, and also need to let materials move into or out of the cell. The cell membrane is made up of a large fatty molecule called which one of the following?

a. lipid bilayer
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. none of the above

34. The molecule that makes a copy of the DNA information in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

35. The molecule that carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome in order that they can be combined to form protein (protein synthesis) is called which one of the following?

a. transfer RNA (tRNA)
b. glucose
c. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)

36. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down which one of the following?

a. water
b. glucose
c. salt
d. pepper

37. Protein is made up of which one of the following?

a. amino acids
b. glucose
c. nucleotides
d. fatty acids

38. A heritable (inherited) characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce is called which one of the following?

a. mutation
b. extinction
c. homeostasis
d. adaption

39. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell

40. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell