Name: ___________________


1. The fluid portion of the cell outside the nucleus is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus


2. Any specialized structure that performs important functions in eukaryotic cells (such as, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and ribosomes) is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. organelle
c. lysosome
d. nucleus


3. The portion of the cell that is found in plants (but not animals) and supports, shapes, and protects the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. nucleus
c. cell wall
d. none of the above


4. The organelle found in plant cells that holds the green pigment chlorophyll and uses the energy from sunlight to make food is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. cell well
d. nucleus


5. The organelle that acts as the power plant of the cell by changing food (glucose) into energy (ATP) for the cell is which one of the following?

a. cytoplasm
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. nucleus


6. All cells have cell membranes which need to be flexible, and also need to let materials move into or out of the cell. The cell membrane is made up of a large fatty molecule called which one of the following?

a. lipid bilayer
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. none of the above


7. Proteins are made of amino acids. For the genetic code to make proteins, each "word" of the code uses three letters to specify an amino acid. The three-letter code is called which one of the following?

a. chlorophyll
b. codon
c. chloroplast
d. cytoplasm


8. The process by which cells release energy (ATP) from food in the absence of oxygen is called which one of the following?

a. fermentation
b. chlorophyll
c. chloroplast
d. cytoplasm


9. What type of organic molecules are enzymes?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins


10. When a football defensive lineman picks up a fumble at the other team's 20 yard-line and tries to return it for a touchdown he quickly runs out of breath (no more oxygen) after only ten yards and desperately needs which one of the following to provide additional energy to his muscles since the available oxygen has been all used up in cell respiration?

a. lactic acid fermentation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. RNA mutation


11. Which process produces the most variation within a species?

a. cloning
b. asexual reproduction
c. mitosis
d. sexual reproduction


12. What structure is found in a plant cell but is absent in an animal cell?

a. nucleus
b. ribosome
c. mitochondria
d. chloroplast


13. Which one of the following is the correct equation for photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose


14. Which one of the following is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose


15. A freshwater plant is placed in a container of saltwater. What will most likely happen to the cells of the plant?

a. The plant cells will shrink because water will move out of them due to osmosis.
b. The plant cells will swell because water will move into them due to osmosis.
c. The plant cells will suddenly undergo DNA or RNA mutations due to osmosis.
d. Nothing will change due to osmosis.


16. For a scientist studying the movement of water into and out of the cell through the cell membrane, which of the following is the best description of osmosis?

a. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become equal on both sides.
b. Osmosis will cause water movement such that the salt concentration will become very high on one side and very low on the other side.
c. Osmosis pertains to DNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.
d. Osmosis pertains to RNA mutations and has nothing to do with the movement of water or salt.


17. Enzymes are made of proteins. Which best describes the important role of enzymes in cells?

a. biological molecules that slow down chemical reactions in cells
b. biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
c. biological molecules that make up the subunits of DNA
d. biological molecules that make up the subunits of RNA


18. Enzymes are made up of which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins


19. Which statement BEST describes the relationship that exists between proteins and DNA?

a. DNA is genetic material that is made up of proteins.
b. DNA is genetic material that determines the production of proteins.
c. Proteins are enzymes that are made up of DNA.
d. Proteins are enzymes that are made up of DNA and RNA.


20. DNA and RNA molecules are which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. proteins
d. nucleic acids


21. The three stages of cellular respiration are ____________ .

a. producer, consumer, decomposer
b. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
c. DNA, RNA, ATP
d. DNA, RNA, m-RNA


22. In science, a ___________ is a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions.

a. fossil
b. hypothesis
c. theory
d. roll of the dice


23. The molecule that makes a copy of the DNA information in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)


24. The molecule that carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome in order that they can be combined to form protein (protein synthesis) is called which one of the following?

a. transfer RNA (tRNA)
b. glucose
c. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)


25. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down _________.

a. water
b. glucose
c. salt
d. pepper


26. Protein is made up of which one of the following?

a. amino acids
b. glucose
c. nucleotides
d. fatty acids


27. A heritable (inherited) characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce is called which one of the following?

a. mutation
b. extinction
c. homeostasis
d. adaption


28. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell


29. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
b. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
c. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
d. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell


30. What are the subunits of DNA and their function?

a. nucleotides that store information
b. lipids that store energy and provide insulation
c. proteins that are structural components of organisms
d. monosaccharides (sugars) that provide quick energy for the cell


31. If energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell, what is most likely occurring?

a. passive transport
b. active transport
c. DNA mutations
d. RNA mutations


32. Which one of the following is referred to as the powerhouse of the cell for its role in converting food (glucose) to energy (ATP)?

a. mitochondria
b. chloroplast
c. nucleus
d. ribosome


33. One of the most important chemicals that cells use to store and give off energy is which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. RNA
c. Salt
d. Pepper


34. In plants, photosynthesis takes place in the __________.

a. chloroplast
b. cell membrane
c. nucleus
d. cell wall


35. Organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy by consuming other organisms are called which one of the following

a. autotrophs
b. heterotrophs
c. producers
d. plants


36. Which one of the following processes uses sunlight, and uses carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere (air), to produce sugars (food)?

a. decomposition
b. fermentation
c. cellular respiration
d. photosynthesis


37. Amino acids are transferred to which one of the following so they can be combined together to form protein (protein synthesis)?

a. chloroplast
b. mitochondria
c. nucleus
d. ribosome


38. A student wanted to examine plant growth using five different amounts of water for daily plant watering. She planted the same type of seeds in identical containers with identical soil. She left the plants together in full sunlight. She gave each plant a different amount of water and charted the growth of each plant stem. What is the independent variable in this experiment?

a. growth
b. water
c. soil
d. light


39. Protein synthesis (making proteins from amino acids) takes place in which one of the following?

a. cell wall
b. chloroplast
c. mitochondria
d. ribosome


40. Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago, life on Earth began with ___________.

a. simple, single-celled organisms
b. simple, multicellular organisms
c. complex, single-celled organisms
b. complex, multicellular organisms


41. For the purpose of classification, which one of the following starts at very general and moves to very specific?

a. Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Species - Family - Genus - Order
b. Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species
c. Species - Genus - Family - Order - Class - Phylum - Kingdom
d. Kingdom - Species - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Phylum


42. Which one of the following is the correct DNA match (complementary base sequence) for the strand "CCT GGA" ?

a. CCA GGT
b. TTC AAG
c. CCT GGA
d. GGA CCT


43. The Kingdom Fungi (including yeast) encompasses some of the most important organisms, both in terms of their ecological and economic roles. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi (mycorrhizae) that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs, such as penicillin and other antibiotics. Which of the following is true?

a. yeast are members of the Fungi Kingdom
b. bacteria are members of the Fungi Kingdom
c. insects are members of the Fungi Kingdom
d. None of the above


44. Two people believe they are related. Which would be the best technique to determine if they are related?

a. testing blood types
b. testing for genetic disorders
c. examining karyotypes
d. comparing DNA


45. Which one of the following definitions for genetic terminology is NOT correct?

a. Recessive Gene: the stronger and more dominant of two genes.
b. Heredity: passing of traits from parent to offspring.
c. Trait: any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
d. Genetics: the study of heredity.


46. An organism that uses the sun to produce food (glucose) is called which one of the following?

a. carnivore
b. decomposer
c. herbivore
d. producer


47. During our microscope lab, we learned that an Amoeba is a member of which one of the following Kingdoms?

a. Animal
b. Plant
c. Protist
d. Bacteria


48. During our microscope lab, we learned that an Amoeba has a ____________.

a. heart
b. lung
c. nucleus
d. none of the above


49. An organism is eukaryotic, autotrophic, and has a cell wall. Which one of the following is the correct classification?

a. Plant
b. Animal
c. Bacteria
d. Archaea


50. Which of the following are prokaryotes?

a. Animals & Plants
b. Protists
c. Fungi
d. Bacteria (Eubacteria and Archaea)