Name: ___________________


1. DNA and RNA molecules are which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. proteins
d. nucleic acids


2. The molecule that transcribes the DNA information in the cell nucleus and then carries this information to other parts of the cell is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. glucose
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)


3. The molecule that carries the correct amino acids to the ribosome in order that they can be combined to form protein (protein synthesis) is called which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. glucose
c. transfer RNA (tRNA)
d. messenger RNA (mRNA)


4. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down _________.

a. water
b. ATP
c. glucose
d. carbon dioxide


5. Protein is made up of which one of the following?

a. fatty acids
b. glucose
c. nucleotides
d. amino acids


6. Which one of the following best describes the important role of enzymes in cells?

a. biological molecules that slow down chemical reactions in cells
b. biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
c. biological molecules that make up the subunits of DNA
d. biological molecules that make up the subunits of RNA


7. Enzymes are which one of the following?

a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins


8. A heritable (inherited) characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce is called which one of the following?

a. mutation
b. extinction
c. homeostasis
d. adaption


9. What is the result when a single cell undergoes mitosis?

a. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
b. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
c. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
d. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell


10. What is the result when a single cell undergoes meiosis?

a. two cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell
b. two cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
c. four cells with half the genetic material of the parent cell
d. four cells with genetic material identical to the parent cell


11. What are the subunits of DNA and their function?

c. monosaccharides (sugars) that provide quick energy for the cell
d. lipids that store energy and provide insulation
c. proteins that are structural components of organisms
d. nucleotides that store information


12. If energy is needed to move materials into or out of a cell, what is most likely occurring?

a. active transport
b. passive transport
c. osmosis
d. diffusion


13. Which one of the following is referred to as the powerhouse of the cell for its role in converting food to energy?

a. chloroplast
b. mitochondria
c. nucleus
d. ribosome


14. One of the most important chemicals that cells use to store and give off energy is which one of the following?

a. ATP
b. RNA
c. DNA
d. Salt


15. In plants, photosynthesis takes place in the __________.

a. chloroplast
b. cell membrane
c. nucleus
d. cell wall


16. Organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy by consuming other organisms are called ____________.

a. autotrophs
b. heterotrophs
c. producers
d. plants


17. Which one of the following removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to produce sugars (food)?

a. decomposition
b. fermentation
c. cellular respiration
d. photosynthesis


18. What is the correct equation for cellular respiration?

a. Oxygen + Glucose -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
b. Oxygen + Glucose + Energy -----> Carbon Dioxide + Water
c. Carbon Dioxide + Water -----> Oxygen + Glucose + Energy
d. Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy -----> Oxygen + Glucose


19. The three stages of cellular respiration are ____________ .

a. producer, consumer, decomposer
b. glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
c. DNA, RNA, ATP
d. DNA, RNA, m-RNA


20. A student wanted to examine plant growth using five different amounts of water for daily plant watering. She planted the same type of seeds in identical containers with identical soil. She left the plants together in full sunlight. She gave each plant a different amount of water and charted the growth of each plant stem. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?

a. growth
b. water
c. soil
d. light


21. In science, a ___________ is a well-tested explanation that accounts for a lot of observations and hypotheses, and that lets scientists make good predictions.

a. fossil
b. bias
c. theory
d. predisposition


22. Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago, life on Earth began with ___________.

a. simple, single-celled organisms
b. simple, multicellular organisms
c. complex, single-celled organisms
b. complex, multicellular organisms


23. For the purpose of classification, which one of the following starts at very general and moves to very specific?

a. Order - Kingdom - Species - Class - Phylum - Genus - Family
b. Order - Kingdom - Species - Class - Genus - Phylum - Family
c. Species - Genus - Family - Order - Class - Phylum - Kingdom
d. Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species


24. Amino acids are transferred to which one of the following so they can be combined together to form protein (protein synthesis)?

a. chloroplast
b. mitochondria
c. nucleus
d. ribosome


25. Which one of the following is the correct DNA match (complementary base sequence) for the strand "GGT" ?

a. CCA
b. TTC
c. CCT
d. AAC


26. The Kingdom Fungi (including yeast) encompasses some of the most important organisms, both in terms of their ecological and economic roles. By breaking down dead organic material, they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. In addition, most vascular plants could not grow without the symbiotic fungi (mycorrhizae) that inhabit their roots and supply essential nutrients. Other fungi provide numerous drugs, such as penicillin and other antibiotics. Which of the following is true?

a. fish are members of the Fungi Kingdom
b. bacteria are members of the Fungi Kingdom
c. yeast are members of the Fungi Kingdom
d. None of the above


27. Two people believe they are related. Which would be the best technique to determine if they are related?

a. testing blood types
b. testing for genetic disorders
c. examining karyotypes
d. comparing DNA


28. Which one of the following definitions for genetic terminology is NOT correct?

a. Trait: any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
b. Heredity: passing of traits from parent to offspring.
c. Recessive Gene: the stronger and more dominant of two genes.
d. Genetics: the study of heredity.


29. An organism that uses the sun to produce energy-rich molecules is called which one of the following?

a. carnivore
b. decomposer
c. herbivore
d. producer


30. Which one of the following definitions for genetic terminology is NOT correct?

a. Trait: any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring.
b. Heredity: passing of traits from parent to offspring.
c. Recessive Gene: the stronger and more dominant of two genes.
d. Genetics: the study of heredity.


31. During our microscope lab, we learned that an Amoeba is a member of which one of the following Kingdoms?

a. Animal
b. Plant
c. Protist
d. Bacteria


32. During our microscope lab, we learned that an Amoeba has a ____________.

a. heart
b. lung
c. nucleus
d. none of the above


33. When a football player runs a 95-yard kickoff return for a touchdown he needs which one of the following to provide additional energy to his muscles as the available oxygen is quickly used up in cell respiration?

a. lactic acid fermentation
b. alcoholic fermentation
c. DNA mutation
d. RNA mutation